Having established that Modernism was a phenomena born out of economic splendor and the burgeoisie's need to declare their status it must not be forgotten that there was also a political aspect. The emergence of a new industrial and financial class coincided with the consolidation of the Catalan nationalist movement against to the Spanish State. The attempts of progressive Catalan politician to form a stable government led to popular uprisings, and not until the fall of the First Republic in 1874 and the restoration of the Spanish monarchy was there sufficient political stability and social calm for the Catalan bourgeoisie to feel confident enough to join the Catalan nationalist movement. Linked to a solid political project, Modernism also became an expression of the Catalan national identity. In this historical context, about eighty architects rose to prominence working on the center of a city asphyxiated by the old walls which had just come down.